What are the primary roles of managers?

In any organization, managers are indispensable. They have a critical impact on the achievement of business objectives, not only in corporate settings, but also in non-profit and government institutions, which require employees with strong management competencies. Commonly, managers oversee the activities of a group of individuals, such as a section or unit, with the aim of achieving established objectives. The primary responsibilities of managers are to plan, organize, lead, and control the organization or a section of it. For our reference we are going to use the P-O-G-C mnemonic which can represent the four management functions: 

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Preparing, Optimizing,  Guiding and Conducting


Preparing involves developing a plan or strategy to achieve organizational objectives. Planning includes defining goals, determining the actions required to achieve them, identifying the resources required, and creating a timeline for completion.


Optimizing requires arranging resources and tasks in a manner that maximizes efficiency and productivity. Organizing includes identifying the tasks that need to be completed, grouping related tasks together, delegating tasks to the appropriate individuals, and establishing reporting structures.


Guiding includes inspiring and motivating employees to achieve the goals and objectives established through planning and organizing. Leading includes setting expectations, providing feedback and guidance, coaching and mentoring, and creating a positive work environment.


Conducting necessitates monitoring and measuring progress to ensure that goals and objectives are being met.  This includes setting performance standards, measuring actual performance against those standards, identifying areas where performance is not meeting expectations, and taking corrective action as necessary.

Thus the key responsibilities of a manager include: preparing, optimizing, guiding and conducting.